Categoriearchief: Oude Testament

1996: Genesis 4:17-24: A Case-study in Eisegesis

‘Genesis 4:17-24: A Case-study in Eisegesis’, in Tyndale Bulletin 47 (1996) 143-162

This article summarises both ancient and modern interpretations of Genesis 4:17-24, paying particular attention to the relatively unknown Jewish exegesis of this pericope. Usually there is a relation between the social and cultural position of the exegete and his positive or negative view of the technical achievements of Cain and his posterity. After a long period of negative interpretation, Calvin is the first to establish another outlook. In this century the discussion between J. Gabriel and C. Westermann reveals many motifs.

Pdf: Genesis_4_17-24_A_Case-study_in_Eisegesis

2016 – The Disturbing Experience of Eliphaz in Job 4

‘The Disturbing Experience of Eliphaz in Job 4: Divine or Demonic Manifestation?’

in George J. Brooke, Pierre Van Hecke (eds), Goochem in Mokum, Wisdom in Amsterdam: Papers on Biblical and Related Wisdom Read at the Fifteenth Joint Meeting of the Society for Old Testament Study and the Oudtestamentisch Werkgezelschap, Amsterdam, July 2012.
Oudtestamentische Studiën, volume 68. Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2016. Pages 108-120.

PDF: Paul – Disturbing Experience of Eliphaz in Job 4

Dit artikel is een Engelstalige uitwerking van de uitleg die in Studiebijbel OT van Job 4 gegeven is. Zie hiervoor Job 4 – identiteit geest


2014 – HSV-Studiebijbel

De HSV-Studiebijbel is een vertaling en bewerking van de ESV Study Bible (2008).
M.J. Paul en T.M. Hofman (hoofdred.), HSV-Studiebijbel. Heerenveen: Royal Jongbloed, 2014 (tweede druk 2015), 2448 pagina’s.

2014 – Toekomst van Israël – vroegchristelijke kerk

‘Ik zend u de profeet Elia’: de toekomst van Israël volgens de vroegchristelijke kerk
Artikel in Theologia Reformata 57-1 (2014) 22-39

Engelse samenvatting van het Nederlandstalige artikel:
Many early church theologians believed that the Christian church had replaced God’s chosen people Israel to become recipients of Old Testament promises. At the same time many writers expected a future conversion of Israel. This article reviews the latter position during the first five centuries of the church.
The analysis reveals that the expectation of a future conversion of Israel rests on the promises of several Old Testament prophets and the words of Paul in Romans 11, not on the view that the covenant with Abraham extends to his natural descendants. The role of Elijah according Malachi is also important.
Several theologians expected a combination of conversion and return of Jews to the land of Israel, but the majority did not. Their emphasis is on the conversion to Christ at the end of the times and on the participation of the converted Jews in the church. The contemporary replacement of Israel by the church is not expected to be lasting because in the future God will give salvation to his formerly chosen people.

Downloaden: Paul – Elia Theol Ref 2014-1

2006: Der archimedische Punkt der Pentateuchkritik

‘Der archimedische Punkt der Pentateuchkritik – zur josianischen Datierung des Deuteronomiums’, Jahrbuch für evangelikale Theologie 20 (2006) 115-137.

Pdf: JeTh – 2006 – Josia und Deuteronomium

Im 19. Jahrhunderte wurden wichtige Entscheidungen über die historischen Glaubwürdigkeit von Pentateuch und Chronik gefällt. Die Rekonstruktion der Geschichte unter dem Einfluss naturalistischer Voraussetzungen und die dieser folgenden Exegese gewann einen großen Einfluss. De Wettes These lieferte der Pentateuchkritik den archimedischen Punkt um die synagogal-kirchliche Tradition aus den Angeln zu heben. Doch wenn dieser Punkt nicht fest steht, ist es nicht mehr möglich, aufgrund dieser Argumente eine bestimmte Datierung des Pentateuchs und seiner Teile zu liefern. Heute hat das Interesse an diachronen Fragen nachgelassen, doch ist an manchen Stellen der Einfluss dieser Rekonstruktion noch spürbar, betrachtet man die neuen Formen der Exegese, speziell in Datierungsfragen. Darum ist es gut, die Geschichte der Exegese zu kennen.

Summary in Englishl: The decisive point in pentateuchal criticism: dating Deuteronomy in the time of Josiah

For centuries is has been assumed, in synagogue and church, that the authorship of the book of Deuteronomy rests with Moses himself. Yet in 1805 Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette defended a thesis expressing a completely different view. According to him, the book of Deuteronomy is of a more recent date. He states that is was written in the 7th century B.C., shortly before the reformation of king Josiah. More and more the view expressed in this thesis has gained widespread approval. J. Wellhausen in particular contributed to this by his book Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels (1878).

In this article Mart-Jan Paul gives some observations from the history of exegesis. The arguments of De Wette were partly exegetical, but were also influenced by the Enlightment. The author cites several forerunners of the Enlightment, who were characterised by a rationalistic and deistic slant, and question the integrity of the high priest Hilkiah with regard to the finding of the old book of the law.

De Wette assumes that there was no centralisation of the cult in the oldest history of Israel, and therefore the law of Ex 20,24-26 has to be much older than the obligation for centralisation in Dtn 12. The book of Chronicles is untrustworthy and a tabernacle did not exist. Only after the elimination of these stumbling blocks could De Wette and Wellhausen give an alternative history of the cult in Israel.

In the second part of this article Paul gives a critical evaluation of the main arguments for this view on the centralisation of the cult. He assumes two levels in the cult in ancient Israel: a local level (Ex 20; Dtn 16, 27, 33) and a national level (Tabernacle in Ex 25-40; Dtn 12). It is not necessary to see a tension between the two levels and to attribute them to different ages in history.

In the last century many archaeological finds give us a better understanding of the cult [S. 137] in the Ancient Near East. There is no longer any necessity to question the historicity of the tabernacle. The late dating of Deuteronomy is thus open for reconsideration.